12.1 Electrons in atoms

Emission Spectra and ionization

  • First ionization energy IE1 relates to process:
    • First IE
  • Second IE is
    • Second IE
  • Nth ionization energy IEn relates to process:
    • General IE
    • IE1 < IE2 < IE3 < IE4
  • In emission spectrum, the lines converge at higher energies. At the limit of convergence, the lines merge forming a continuum
  • Beyond continuum, electron can have any energy
  • The frequency of the radiation in the emission spectrum at the limit of convergence can be used to determine IE1

Periodic Trends in ionization energies

  • In Ca, big jump between IE2 and IE3 because corresponds to removing electron from fully occupied 3p sublevel
  • In Ti, big jump between IE4 and IE5 because change in energy level. Ti5+ does not occur naturally
  • Ionization energy for Ti increases more gradually than Ca because electrons are being removed from 3d and 4s orbitals, which are much closer in energy than 3p and 4d.
  • These big jumps in energy occur when removal of electrons from different energy levels n (1,2,3,4,…)

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