3.1 Periodic table

  • Groups: Go vertically down
  • Periods: horizontal rows of elements
    • There are 7 periods. The period number is equal to principle quantum number n of highest occupied energy level
  • Periodic table is split roughly into metals, non-metals and metalloids
  • Left of line is metals, right of line is nonmetals, touching line is metalloids.
    • Metals:
      • Good conductors
      • Malleable
      • Ductile
      • Have lustre
      • Lose electrons
    • Non-metals:
      • Poor conductors
      • Gain electrons
    • Metalloids
      • Close to the line, have both metallic and non-metallic properties
      • Some metalloids are semi-conductors

  • The periodic table is split into four blocks based on s, p, d, f
  • Occupancy of electrons for each sub-level is:SPDF

*Two electrons per each orbital

  • Number of Valence electron (outer-shell electrons) can be found from the group number of the s and p block elements.

Periodic_Table_spdf

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