1.3 Reacting masses and volumes


  • Stoichiometry is the quantitative method of examining the relative amounts of reactants and products

The limiting reagent

  • Limiting reagent is completely consumed during a reaction, the remaining reactants are in excess
  • The limiting reagent is what is used to determine the amount of products formed

Percentage Yield

  • Percentage yield is used to determine the efficiency of a reaction
  • Some factors for where yield is lost include:
    • Loss of products from reaction vessels
    • Impurity of reactants
    • Changes in reaction conditions, such as temperature and pressure
    • Reverse reactions consuming products in equilibrium systems
    • Existence of side reactions due to impurities

Molar volume of a gas

  • Ideal gas is a gas which follows the kinetic theory of gases. They are found in systems with high temperature and low pressure.
  • Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP): The conditions where temperature is 273K and pressure is 100 kPa.
  • At STP, the Molar Volume of an ideal gas is 22.7 dm3 mol-1
  • Avogadro’s Law: Equal volumes of any gas measured at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules
    • This can be applies to stoichiometric relationships in which the coefficients correspond to the ratio of volumes of gases
    • Avogadro's Law

The Gas Laws

  1. Boyle’s Law
    1. Boyle's Law
  2. Charles’s Law
    1. Charles's Law
  3. Gay-Lussac’s Law
    1. Gay Lussac's Law
  4. Combined Gas Law
    1. Combined Gas Law
  5. Ideal gas equation
    1. Ideal Gas Law

Molar Concentration

  • Concentration


  • Titration involves a standard solution of known concentration which is added to a solution of unknown concentration until the chemical reaction is complete
  • Watch this video

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