4.2 Covalent bonding

Covalent Bonding

  • Formed by electrostatic attraction between a shared pair of electrons and the positive nuclei
  • In ionic, atoms lose or gain electrons. In covalent, atoms share electrons to achieve noble gas configuration
  • Occurs between non-metals
  • There are single bonds (F2), double bonds (O2) and triple bonds (N2)
  • There is also HF for example in which H does not acquire a octet rule

Bond Strength and bond Length

  • The trend in bond strength is:
    • Triple > double > single
  • The trend in bond length is
    • Single > double > triple


  • Electronegativity is the relative attraction that an atom of an element has for the shared pair of electrons in covalent bond.
  • It can be determined with electronegativity values the type of bond:
  • To find Δen, subtract the electronegativity values for two atoms

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